Simulating Host Identity Protocol-Based Virtual Private LAN Service Using Mininet Framework
Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) provide means for building Layer 2 communication on top of existing IP networks. VPLS can be built using various approaches. However, when building a production-grade VPLS solution one needs to have a clear picture of how such aspects as security, mobility, and L2 issues will be solved.
In this short article, we will demonstrate how to build the VPLS using Host Identity Protocol (HIP). Since our goal is not to build a production-grade implementation of HIP-switches, we will only demonstrate proof of a concept solution that uses Mininet – a framework for simulating L2 and L3 networks. It is worth mentioning that the code we have produced can be also deployed (under certain conditions; for example, our HIP implementation does not feature the NAT traversal mechanisms and does not yet provide an L2 loop prevention mechanism) on the real hardware.
While building HIP-switches (the switches that are deployed at the border of a network) we came across several challenges. First, we understood that HIP-switches need to support the IEEE 802.1D protocol (or its modification – this really depends on the version of the protocol supported by the switches) to avoid L2 loops in the network. This problem was initially addressed in the relevant IETF draft. Second, there were certain issues with MTU and the inability of the Linux kernel to deliver IP packets when those are fragmented in user space and injected into the network stack using raw sockets. And finally, it took us some time to repackage the existing implementation of HIP protocol as a library, so that it will be agnostic about low-level networking (such as raw sockets, etc.). Since the implementation of the IEEE 802.1D protocol for our HIP-switches is still ongoing, we will demonstrate the usage of HIP-based VPLS using loop-free L2 topology.